Automatic Weather Station
India is an Agricultural country. Agriculture is heavily dependent on the weather & its forecasts for its Control on the Quality & Quantity of a crop for farmers & its effect on the farmer’s Ability to work on his the land or to graze his stock preservations.
Weather monitoring is also important not just in defining present climate but, Also for Detecting Climate change and providing the input data to forecasting models which enable us to predict future changes in our Environment.
Weather parameters also affect Transportation, Energy, Food & other allied segments. Because of the wide variety of uses for the information, there is a large number of interest shown by different groups of people.
Dynalog’s Automatic Weather Station (AWS) solution typically consist of a weather-proof enclosure containing the Data logger, Rechargeable Battery, Telemetry (optional) & the Meteorological Sensors with an attached solar panel or wind turbine and mounted upon a mast. The specific configuration may vary due to the purpose of the system. The system may report in near real time & or save the data for later recovery.
In the past, automatic weather stations were often placed where electricity and communication lines were available. Nowadays, the solar panel, wind turbine and mobile phone technology have made it possible to have wireless stations that are not connected to the electrical grid or hardline telecommunications network.
Weather variables listed below, are important factors in determining the course of a wide range of events & are measured using sensors as indicated.Standard Parameters for AWS :
- Wind speed using Anemometer
- Wind direction using Wind Vane
- Air temperature using Temperature sensors
- Solar Radiation using Pyranometer
- Humidity using Hygrometer
- Rainfall using Rain gauge for measuring liquid-equivalent precipitation
- Atmospheric pressure using Barometer
- Net radiation
- Soil Temperature
- Soil Moisture
- Leaf wetness
The data-logger is the heart of the Automatic Weather Station. In high quality weather stations, the data-logger is designed to be the perfect solution for a particular meteorological application.
The main functions of a data-logger are:
- Measurement: Data-logger collects the information from every sensor and archives it.
- Calculation: Data-logger processes most of the meteorological data
- Data storage: Data-logger saves all the data either on its own memory or on SD card.
- Power supply: Data-logger manages the power supply of the Automatic Weather Station, using a solar panel for instance.
- Communication: Data-logger manages the communication protocols with the remote server. The different communication protocols are usually GSM, GPRS, RTC, WiFi, uSD, and RS232.
Enclosures used with automatic weather stations are typically weather proof fiberglass, ABS or stainless steel, With ABS being the cheapest, cast aluminium paint or stainless steel the most durable and fiberglass being a compromise.
AWS Power supply
The main power source for an automatic weather station depends on its usage. Many stations with lower power equipment usually use one or more solar panels connected in parallel with a regulator and one or more rechargeable batteries. As a rule of thumb, solar output is at its optimum for only 5 hours each day. As such, mounting angle and position are vital.
The output from the solar panels may be supplemented by a wind turbine to provide power during periods of poor sunlight, or by direct connection to the local electrical grid.
Mast / Tower
The standard mast heights used with automatic weather stations are 2, 3, 10 and 30 meters. A common application is to take measurements of wind, humidity and temperature at 30, 10, and 2 meters. Other sensors are mounted around the 2 meter or lower height.
Apart from Weather forecasting, collected weather data is also useful for :
- Crop insurance Schemes ( Such as Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana - PMFBY )
- Implementation of welfare schemes
- Research and Development purposes
- Crop advisories
- Disaster management
- Rail / Road / Air Traffic
- Energy Management
- Any other larger public interest purpose
The demand for these data, usually on an hourly or daily or more frequent timescale, is catered by deployment of Automatic weather stations.